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Electric vehicles (EV) With the advent of Industry 4.0, self-driving cars have emerged as an intriguing study issue in the scientific and technology communities. Many complicated algorithms are required for the driving system, which must deliver both accurate results and rapid running times. With adequate EV adoption, the current power system might suffer massive instabilities, but with good management and coordination, EVs can be transformed into a key contribution to the effective implementation of the smart grid idea. There is also the possibility of significant environmental advantages, since EVs may significantly cut greenhouse gas emissions generated by the transportation industry. However, there are certain significant challenges that EVs must solve before they can completely replace ICE cars. This article focuses on examining all relevant facts on EV designs, battery energy sources, electrical machines, charging processes, optimization approaches, effects, trends, and potential future directions.